With the current technological advancements and the use of the computer and Internet in language classrooms, learners have more opportunities to practice online collaborative language activities, and this collaboration is not restricted to the classroom setting. They can share information and construct and exchange knowledge and meaning with each other in all stages of the language learning process. As far as teaching English is concerned, when students are off-site, they will be more focused on activities related to their studies, and they are able to perform better. They can follow the instructions taught in the class and interact with their peers in different stages of the langauge learning process. Even though it seems beneficial to ask students to use online devices at home and interact with their peers and teachers, there are also some problems in interacting with teachers and learners while they are off-site. For some reasons, teachers may not have enough time to spend for the learners when they are off-site. On the other hand, controlling students and urging them to do such activities can be difficult, but it is not impossible.
Education has been affected by technological advancements, growth of Internet dominance in everyday life and the usage of mobile communication technologies. It is evident that transferring to information society needs integration of e-learning technologies into the educational process (Krasnova & Ananjev, 2015). Language learning is a complex form of social and cultural activity which involves a high level of abstraction as learners attempt to communicate meaning. “social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior” (Heidar, 2016). Based on this notion, collaborative learning was introduced which is to have cooperation with others by contributing ideas in order for quality learning and growth to take place. Thus, collaborative learning has defined as the process which provides participants the opportunity to explore, discuss, cooperate and develop learning capabilities (Dobao, 2012; Heidar, 2016; Noël & Robert, 2004).
Payampersa Online Learning (POL) is brought to you by Payampersa Language Institute, the world’s English teaching experts. If you want to improve your fluency and accuracy in English Language or want to find out more about our online training courses, you’ve come to the right place! POL is a feedback-based structure for your project based language learning. To improve fluency and accuracy, you need to produce language through speaking and writing so this feedback based structure helps you with your continuing professional lifelong development.
Anybody can participate POL especially students who can use a computer and are familiar with English up to Elementary levels. POL will help you develop your language learning skills (Speaking, Writing, Reading & Listening) through productive skills for EFL, TOEFL & IELTS.
As soon as you have Registered and logged in, POL will take the responsibility of teaching you and the step by step instructions will appear on your screen.
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This course focuses on the study principles and methodology of translation. It aims to introduce the students the ABC’s of translation as well as to provide them with an overview of the basic theories, skills and techniques of translation. Upon going through the hints and exercises provided, the students will acquire the basic techniques of translation which will enable them to translate texts of medium complexity. As a matter of fact, I am to try my hand at combining theory and practice throughout the course. In addition to studying the theoretical constructs of translation, the students will learn about the characteristics of different translating methods and techniques, and the qualities of a good translator. The hints and exercises have been proposed in order to explain the translation process and have aimed to establish principles and procedures of good translation practice. Experience has taught me that, in translating, nobody can speak with an air of finality; therefore, no key section is attached. Moreover translating is a sort of problem solving and enjoys a unique flavor of challenge which can be spoiled by a key to exercises.
- Hatim, Basil and Jeremy Munday (2004). Translation: An Advanced Resource Book. London: Routledge/Offset by Rahnama Press.
- Munday, J. (2008). Introducing Translation Studies. London: Routledge/Offset by Rahnama Press. Chapters 1–6.
- Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. London: Prentice Hall International. Chapters 3–8.
Mollanazar, H. (1389). Principles and Methodology of Translation. Tehran: SAMT
This course focuses on the study of word-formation and word-structure which is called Morphology. The meaning of morphology is “the science of (word) forms.” Morphological theory provides a general theory of word-structure in all the languages of the world. Its task is to characterize the kinds of things that speakers need to know about the structure of the words of their language in order to be able to use them to produce and to understand speech. Morphology is the level of linguistics which is concerned with the internal structure of words, whether these be simple or complex, whether they contain grammatical information or have a purely lexical status.
This course offers a comprehensive survey of the knowledge of morphology which includes knowledge of individual morphemes, their pronunciation, and their meaning, and knowledge of the rules for combining morphemes into complex words.
- Katamba, F. (2005) English Words. Routledge Publications.
- McCarthy A. C. (2002) Edinburgh University An Introduction to English Morphology. Edinburgh University Press.
- Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams. (2011). An Introduction to Language. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 9th Edition (Morphology)
- George Yule (2010). The Study of Language. Cambridge University Press. 4th Edition (Morphology)
Testing and assessment are part of modern life. Schoolchildren around the world are constantly assessed, whether to monitor their educational progress, or for governments to evaluate the quality of school systems. Adults are tested to see if they are suitable for a job they have applied for, or if they have the skills necessary for promotion. Entrance to educational establishments, to professions and even to entire countries is sometimes controlled by tests. Tests play a fundamental and controversial role in allowing access to the limited resources and opportunities that our world provides. The importance of understanding what we test, how we test and the impact that the use of tests has on individuals and societies cannot be overstated. Testing is more than a technical activity; it is also an ethical enterprise.
The practice of language testing draws upon, and also contributes to, all disciplines within applied linguistics. However, there is something fundamentally different about language testing. Language testing is all about building better tests, researching how to build better tests and, in so doing, understanding better the things that we test.
This course offers a comprehensive survey of essential principles and tools for second language assessment.
- Madson, H. S. (1983). Techniques in Language Testing. Teaching Techniques in English as a second Language.
- Brown H. D. (2004). Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. Longman Publications.
- Fulcher G., Davidson F. (2007). Language Testing and Assessment. An advanced resource book. Routledge Applied Linguistics.
The proliferation of approaches and methods is a prominence characteristic of contemporary second and foreign language teaching. To some, this reflects the strength of our profession. Invention of new classroom practices and approaches to designing language programs and materials reflects a commitment to finding more efficient and more effective ways of teaching languages, the classroom teacher and the program coordinator have a wider variety of methodological options to choose from than ever before. They can choose methods and materials according to the needs of learners, the preferences of teachers, and the constraints of the school or educational setting.
- Freeman, Diane-Larsen. (2001). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. 3rd Edition
- Richards Jack C. and Rodgers. (2001). Theodore S. Approaches and Methods In Language Teaching: A description and analysis. 2nd Edition
- Brown, H. Douglas. (2014). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Pearson Education ESL; 6 edition
An important purpose of the course is to explain how English is pronounced in the accent normally chosen as the standard for people learning the English spoken in England. If this was the only thing the course did, a more suitable title would have been “English Pronunciation”. However, at the comparatively advanced level at which this course is aimed, it is usual to present this information in the context of a general theory about speech sounds and how they are used in language; this theoretical context is called phonetics and phonology. Why is it necessary to learn this theoretical background? A similar question arises in connection with grammar: at lower levels of study one is concerned simply with setting out how to form grammatical sentences, but people who are going to work with the language at an advanced level as teachers or researchers need the deeper understanding provided by the study of grammatical theory and related areas of linguistics. The theoretical material in the present course is necessary for anyone who needs to understand the principles regulating the use of sounds in spoken English.
- Peter Roach. (2009). English Phonetics and Phonology: A practical course. Cambridge University Press. 4th Edition
- Chapters related to Phonetics and Phonology in the following Books:
1) Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams. (2011). An Introduction to Language. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 9th Edition
2) George Yule (2010). The Study of Language. Cambridge University Press. 4th Edition
3) Julia S. Falk. (1978). Linguistics and language: a survey of basic concepts and applications
4) Adrian Akmajian, Richard A. Demers, Ann K. Farmer. (2010). Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication, 6th edition
Linguistics shares with other sciences a concern to be objective, systematic, consistent, and explicit in its account of language. Like other sciences, it aims to collect data, test hypotheses, devise models, and construct theories. Its subject matter, however, is unique: at one extreme it overlaps with such “hard” sciences as physics and anatomy; at the other, it involves such traditional “arts” subjects as philosophy and literary criticism. The field of linguistics includes both science and the humanities, and offers a breadth of coverage that, for many aspiring students of the subject, is the primary source of its appeal.
- Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams. (2011). An Introduction to Language. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 9th Edition
- George Yule (2010). The Study of Language. Cambridge University Press. 4th Edition
- Julia S. Falk. (1978). Linguistics and language: a survey of basic concepts and applications
- Adrian Akmajian, Richard A. Demers, Ann K. Farmer. (2010). Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication, 6th edition